The human body carries far more bacterial cells than human cells; in fact, humans are, by cell count, roughly 90% bacteria. As microbial research continues, it is increasingly clear that these bacteria play much bigger role in our life than we could ever imagine. Our mental health and physical health appear to be not only encoded in our DNA, but also dictated by our bacterial makeup. Further, there is growing evidence that a disturbance of gut flora homeostatis can lead to a weakened immune system, colorectal cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic disorders, chronic fatigue, late-onset autism, anxiety, depression, and other psychological disorders. Microbiota therapy is a novel treatment which is based on this principle, and focuses on the bacterial composition of the gut instead of brain chemistry or behavior. In Microbiota therapy, a suspension of biologically active fecal matter from a healthy individual with a proper balance of gut bacteria is infused into the gastrointestinal tract of another person for the purpose of treating a specific disease by achieving a healthy equilibrium of gut flora. While Microbiota therapy has, indeed, shown to be effective in treating a range of gastrointestinal issues, there is growing literature on its potential for treating the following non-gastrointestinal conditions: anxiety, depression, obesity, chronic fatigue, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory diseases, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, autoimmune disease. Additionally, Microbiota therapy can be used as a complement to anti-cancer treatments, as its anti-inflammatory effects have the potential to aid tumor reduction.